Ultra Precision Timing and Atomic Clocks: An Overview

What do you think of when you hear the word “clock”? Do you picture a couple of arrow hands on a round face with numbers around the rim, going tick-tock? That's the old perception of clocks. Today's clocks are worlds away from those pocket watches and grandmother clocks with pendulums. This is the age of…

What do you think of when you hear the word “clock”? Do you picture a couple of arrow hands on a round face with numbers around the rim, going tick-tock? That's the old perception of clocks. Today's clocks are worlds away from those pocket watches and grandmother clocks with pendulums. This is the age of technology, the Internet, social media, and a vast net of connectivity. And believe it or not, today's clocks are actually what run that world, and they do so with atomic precision.

What is an atomic clock, more accurately called a chip scale atomic clock, and what makes it atomic? Contrary to what the name invokes, there is nothing nuclear about these devices. The use of the word atomic comes from the inner workings of the clock. Where traditional clocks work using spring-powered gears that click as they turn to count seconds, minutes and hours, these atomic clock work by counting the frequency of electromagnetic waves that are being emitted by a container of cesium atoms. The atoms are held in a container about the size of a grain of rice, which is stuck by a very small laser beam, causing the electromagnetic waves to be measured.

These clocks are a technological wonder, as they run on 100 times less power than other clocks, and are no bigger than a matchbox. The accuracy of this clock is to be miscelled at, as it will only lose one second per 50 billion years, it is the most precise device for measuring time that mannish possesses. There is another great difference between chip scale atomic clocks and their older, less advanced counterparts, and that is the fact that they do not actually tell the time of day. They can be used in reference to other clocks, to detect the accuracy of their time keeping, which is the main way that phones, Internet, and all of wide-spanning connections stay on the same basic timeline. This is crucial to preventing mass confusion and upset worldwide.

The other main purpose of these clocks is to be used in tandem with another atomic clock, to keep two groups of otherwise unexpected people in perfect synchronization. This is key to applications around the globe, since GPS signals are not always reliable or capable to reach remote areas and destinations. For example, miners deep underground can plan safely with people above, and deep-sea explorers can stay on the same page as their counterparts on the surface, which is key to safety in both cases.

Communication and data relay across nations depends on these chip scale atomic clocks to ensure that there is no room for error or miscommunication, a crucial aspect of keeping the peace between the world's powerful nations. The military applications also can not be understated in importance.

Chip scale atomic clocks are also being designed for portable use, and geologists, hydrologists and scientists in other fields of study are finding new ways of using them, such as accurately measuring the changes that occur to the surface of our planet, as well as measure ice shifts for various climate studies. To sum up, chip scale atomic clocks are invaluable when it comes to keeping the world coordinated and connected.

How to Install a Rackmount Recorder

Are you getting ready to record some audio with a rackmount recorder? While this is a great quality piece of equipment, installation can be tricky if you have not utilized this equipment before. Before you tear your hair out trying to decipher an installation pamphlet, read this to get a simpler breakdown. Safety First There…

Are you getting ready to record some audio with a rackmount recorder? While this is a great quality piece of equipment, installation can be tricky if you have not utilized this equipment before. Before you tear your hair out trying to decipher an installation pamphlet, read this to get a simpler breakdown.

Safety First
There are some obvious no-nos when it comes to electronics, such as keep them away from water, keep children away from cords and plugs, do not place cords where they can be tripped on, etc. You also want to be sure that you do not place the rackmount recorder next to any sort or heat-generating apparatus such as radiators or stoves, and if you install on a moving cart be sure to use caution when moving the cart to prevent injury from tipping over. Also make sure any ventilation openings are left uncoverted to prevent the device from overheating.

Features
Some standard features that are included in rackmount recorders are the ability to record to SD cards as well as USB flash drives, mono and stereo recording and playback capabilities, and MP3 audio compression format. The other option available is to record in PCM format, which is uncompressed. The audio files produced will be compatible with Windows as well as Macintosh computers. There are also some nifty features such as automatic recording, which stops recording if there is no sound, then restarts when the sounds continue for seamless recording. Another handy feature is that you can opt to control levels manually or allow to device to do so automatically.

Accessories
It's a good idea to only use the accessories that are included with the device, or ask a professional about using other accessories to ensure compatibility. The accessories that are usually included are: 1) an audio cable, which has red and white connectors on each side, making installation easy since the receptors are color coded, 2) a power cord, usually with a three-wire or three-pronged grounding plug, which should only be used with a compatible three-pronged outlet, 3) a USB cable, which allows you to connect the device to a computer system without interference or construction noise which can cause a malfunction, 4) a CD-ROM with instructions as well as any necessary software installations, 5) a security screw for the SD card door, 6) often the SD card door is also included in the accessories package.

Connection
The first thing to remember is to plug in the power cord only when everything else has been plugged in correctly. Always be sure to check twice that the connection is secure, that right and left channels correspond (left with left which is white plug with white socket, and right with right which is red plug with red socket). The same goes for any digital connections, be sure that labels correspond such as “in” or input with audio input, and “out” or output with audio output. The SD card should be installed in the SD card door before using, and the door must be secured with the screw from the accessories package. The power cord should never be disconnected while the device is in use. There is also normally a headphone jack to give you the option to listen with headphones.

Recording and Usage
Once everything is plugged in, press the power switch, and select a file list to store the recording. There should be a FILE LIST button, depending on which brand of rackmount recorder you are using, and you can select form a list of files. To navigate the list, rotate the jog dial and press, then when you are finished, press the file list button again. Press the RECORD button to record, the STOP button to stop, or you can also use the PLAY / PAUSE button. Be sure that you have enough recording capacity at the time you begin recording, or add a USB disk to automatically collect recording data if the SD card becomes too full. To playback, visit the file list again, and press PLAY / PAUSE when you have selected the file name you chose at the start. There is often a PITCH ON // OFF button that allows you to adjust pitch during playback as well. To plug into a computer, make sure the device is on, and the SD card is mounted in, then connect the USB cord form the device to the computer, and the screen of the device should alert you when connection is complete.

Troubleshooting
If you experience any problems, follow this procedure: 1) Check that all connections are correctly corresponding, and that they are secure, since loose connections cause malfunctions. 2) If you are hearing buzzing or humming sounds that will not go away, try separating the power cords from the connection cords, since they can cause feedback. 3) Make sure that all other devices in use are operating properly, or are connected correctly and securely. 4) Check the owner's manual for Troubleshooting tips specific to your brand and model.

Common Uses for a Printed Circuit Board

There is no questioning the fact that we live in a society that is dependent upon electronics. One of the unsung heroes in the majority of the electronic items that we use is the printed circuit board, also known as a PCB. These handy devices not only make it possible to produce the electronics that…

There is no questioning the fact that we live in a society that is dependent upon electronics. One of the unsung heroes in the majority of the electronic items that we use is the printed circuit board, also known as a PCB. These handy devices not only make it possible to produce the electronics that we use, it also makes mass production possible and can automate many of the working factors of the electronics that we use for both efficiency and speed (Source: “What is a Printed Circuit Board “, Business Gross). What are printed circuit boards and what are the more common devices that make use of this electronic miracle?

If you were to take apart any electronic item, such as your computer or a cell phone, you would find a thin board on the inside which is made of an insulating material. The surface is covered with metal, typically on the top and bottom. In the metal surface, etches are generated automatically which produce a pathway that makes it possible for electricity to travel from one component to another. Those various components are mounted to the surface of the board with solder.

Before we discuss the specific electronics which commonly make use of the printed circuit board, it's important to understand that they can be found in almost any location. Regardless of whether you are talking about your cellular telephone or if you are talking about a kitchen appliance, it is likely that they take advantage of what PCBs make possible. PCBs can be fabricated in order to produce almost any benefit imaginable. That being said, here are some of the most common uses for the printed circuit board.

Computers – Although it is not likely that you have heard about a printed circuit board being inside of a computer, you have probably heard of a motherboard. In actuality, they are one and the same. The motherboard is the heart and soul of the computer, allowing all of its functions to take place seamlessly, quickly and conveniently. There are also other PCBs that are located inside of the computer, such as those that handle specific processes within it. These can include the cards that are separate from the motherboard, such as the sound card, video card, modem and the power supply. PCBs also control the function of the memory of the computer (RAM) and allow it to be accessed as needed.

Cell Phones – It does not matter if you use a smartphone or one that is not quite as up-to-date, it is also going to make use of a printed circuit board. PCBs allows for millions of calculations to take place within the cell phone every second. Not only can it allow you to access data, such as checking your email or text messaging, it also decompresses and compresses the VoiceStream so that you can have a conversation.

As technology continues to move forward, there is no doubt that printed circuit boards will play a large role in the future of the electronic items that we use. They will continue to produce faster, more efficient results and will allow technology to keep up with our ever-growing demands.

Sources:

“What is a Printed Circuit Board”, Business Gross, http://businessgross.com/2013/06/12/what-is-a-printed-circuit-board/

Introduction to Fiber Optic Tools

The most significant element of the present-day world of communications is fiber optics. An ever-increasing number of networks responsible for data communication depend on fiber optics for their effective and successful operation. Optical cables essentially form a part of wide area networks of buildings and campuses. The principle on which fiber optics works is light.…

The most significant element of the present-day world of communications is fiber optics. An ever-increasing number of networks responsible for data communication depend on fiber optics for their effective and successful operation. Optical cables essentially form a part of wide area networks of buildings and campuses.

The principle on which fiber optics works is light. Fiber cables contain plastic or glass filaments, which depend on light signals for the transfer of data from one point to another. Light has a very appealing feature: it can travel more quickly compared to electric current, which has traditionally been employed in the field of communication. Characteristically, optical fibers are quite fragile and thus get contaminated in many ways: through dust particles, through the presence of oils and buffer gel. So they must remain clean and tested after installation in order to ensure an uninterrupted flow of light.

Compared to the usual copper cables, the expense for the installation of optic cables is a bit greater, requiring especially designed tools of superior quality for the process of installation. Because of their functionality, the demand for these cables is sure to increase in the foreseeable future. It is worth investing in the appropriate equipment of good quality, as that would prove economic in the long run. If you like to have an edge over other competitors in the field of communication, you should be prepared to invest and use superior kits.

Test equipment

You can get a wide range of kits for executing various jobs connected with the fiber optic industry. Here are some of the most frequently needed kits:

  • Fusion Splicing Tool Kit
  • Fiber Optic Testing Tool Kit
  • Optical Cleaning Tool Kit
  • Quick Termination Connector Tool Kit
  • Traditional Epoxy and Polish Connector Termination Tool Kit

You should make a careful assessment of the kit that would meet with your requirements for testing fiber optics, while keeping your budget in mind. It would be good to seek the opinion of professionals in the field of installation, maintenance and the inspection of fiber optic cables. You should also ensure to select a reliable company for making the purchase of the needed equipment. You will surely find the Internet of great help. You may also talk to people already in the same business.

Cleaning tools

The list of tools for the purpose enterprises of:

  • Fiber optics launch cable: It's a cable box, employed for testing fiber cables when using an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer.
  • Fiber microscope: This testing equipment is used to ensure that unmated connectors are free of contamination and the face is properly finished. It must be ensured that the connected devices are clean before coupling.
  • Fiber patch cord: This fiber cable is used for making patch cords from various pieces of equipment such as the receiver, transmitter and terminal box to the cables.

Multimedia and Hardware Education

Multimedia studies is an interdisciplinary field of academies nowdays, which focuses on the understanding of technologies and cultural dimensions of linking traditional media sources with the newer versions of the same. Its scopes can be explained better if the term communication is blended with the visual part of it, or through the concept of communication…

Multimedia studies is an interdisciplinary field of academies nowdays, which focuses on the understanding of technologies and cultural dimensions of linking traditional media sources with the newer versions of the same. Its scopes can be explained better if the term communication is blended with the visual part of it, or through the concept of communication design. This is because if communication refers to the need and practice of interaction with people around us so as to make sense of the world and to position ourselves in the broadsocial socio-cultural reality, designing is a science as well to create a plan or a norm , criteria or a custom, for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction in business and in society at large. In the complex digital environment around us today, such designing can be so applicable to all transactions that are possible between an individual and their environment and has become a powerful means of reaching out to the target audience. Also, it is such a learning which seeks to attract, inspire, create desires and motivate people to respond to messages, with the objective of creating an impact for the initiator, which can be either to build a brand, move sales, or for general humanitarian purposes.

Considering communication and designing together is a modern systems-based approach, a mixed discipline between design and information-development, concerned with media intervention such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations to communicate with people. Thus, the stream of multimedia studies involve a broad spectrum of visual communication, incorporating editing, typography, illustration, web design, animation, advertising, visual identity design, performing arts, copywriting and professional writing skills applied in the creative industries. Students of this stream learn to create visual messages and how well they could be broadcast to the world in new and meaningful ways. Students learn how to combine communication with art and technology through the disciples involving how to design web pages, video games, animation, motion graphics and more. The various mediums to get a message across are advertising, graphic designing, industrial designing, information architecture, marketing, technical writing and so on, to become illustrators, graphic designers, web designers, advertising artists, animators, video editors or motion graphic artists, Egypt even printmakers and conceptual artists.

In West Bengal the 'Brainware University' is the one of its kind, offering extremely job-oriented full-time undergraduate and postgraduate courses in multimedia studies, and thus leading students of this generation to blend their imaginative thinking and their creative faculty to the technology of the day to meet the growing needs of the mass and media in multiple aspects.

MTP(R) or MPO(R), What’s in a Name?

MPO The term MPO stands for Multi-fiber Push On and is a specific interface type. The MPO interface was developed to enable multi-fiber connectivity for higher density, higher bandwidth based applications requiring parallel or channel based optics. 12 and 24 fiber versions are currently used to direct connect into 40GbE and 100GbE transceivers and also…

MPO

The term MPO stands for Multi-fiber Push On and is a specific interface type. The MPO interface was developed to enable multi-fiber connectivity for higher density, higher bandwidth based applications requiring parallel or channel based optics. 12 and 24 fiber versions are currently used to direct connect into 40GbE and 100GbE transceivers and also used in high density fiber distribution areas. High fiber versions are also available (48, 72 fiber) but their use and deployment is currently limited.

The MPO interface is primarily defined by the IEC standard 61754-7 and TIA-604-5 9 (US). These standards respectively cover the mating capabilities of devices and passive components when using a multi-fiber connector of this type.

MTP®

The MTP® connector is specifically a brand of MPO interface connector that is owned by the leading US based optical R & D company US Conec. Like MPO it is based on the MT (mechanical transfer) ferrule technology which was developed by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) during the 1980s.

The MTP® (Mechanical Transfer Push On) connector is widely recognized as the highest performing MPO connector in the market due to a number of unique and patented mechanical features that will significantly stand out from those of a standard MPO connector. US Conec comments that the MTP® connector is “a high performance MPO connector with multiple engineered product enhancements to improve optical and mechanical performance when compared to generic MPO connectors.”

As an example, some of these key primary enhancements are described below;

  • A floating ferrule that aids in accurate alignment and improvements performance of mated ferrules under stressed load conditions.
  • Elliptical guide pins that allows for better alignment by improving mating guidance and reducing hole wear.
  • Removable housing allowing for smoother transition of gender types in the field and easier access to performance testing and re-work of the MT ferrule.
  • The MTP® connector has a metal pin clamp that centers and guides the push spring. This feature eliminates lost guide pins, centers the spring force and eliminates damage to fiber cables from the spring.
  • The MTP® connector spring design maximizes ribbon clearance for twelve fiber and multi-fiber ribbon applications to prevent fiber damage.
  • The MTP® connector is offered with four standard variations of strain relief boots to meet a wide array of applications. Available to meet a variety of cable constructions, round, loose micro core oval jacked, bare ribbon and short boot options, all of which are ideal for use in space limited applications.

The MTP® connector is currently available in 4, 8, 12, 24, and 72 fiber densities for multimode fiber (50μm and 62.5μm core) and 4, 8, 12, and 24 fiber densities for single-mode fiber, as well as the MTP® Elite® (low-loss) single-mode connector in both 8 and 12 fiber densities.

It is also important to note that the MTP® connector complies with the MPO standard as outlined in IEC standard 61754-7 and TI-604-5 and is there a fully compliant MPO connector and can interconnect directly with other MPO based infrastructures.

Use of Generic MPO Connectors vs MTP® Connector

Independent verification and tests have continuously re-enforced the MTP® connector as offering superior over-life performance when compared to standard MPO connectors.

This higher performance has resolved in wide adoption, not just by fiber cabling manufacturers, but also by switch, server and storage manufacturers.

Connecting to equipment with MTP® connectors is best done using optical fiber cables with MTP® connectors, although other MPO cables are likely to work but may not offer the same performance.

It is possible to connect cables from different cabling manufacturers that use the MTP® connector in their range. However, a detailed understanding of how the polarity is managed within each manufacturer's product range is required.

What to remember

It's very simple to understand really in that if you are discussing, commenting or specifying the use multi-fiber connectors.

  • MPO is an interface type. There are many connector manufacturers to choose from to get this connector.
  • The MTP® connector is one type of MPO connector. It is a brand owned by US Conec and used by most active equipment manufacturers and cabling companies.
  • There is an internationally recognized standard for MPO connectors.
  • MTP® is fully compliant with the requirements of MPO standards.
  • If you are looking to connect to you active equipment (such as CISCO) then a cable with MTP® connectors will give you the best over-life performance. Other MPO connectors should also work, but may not perform to the same level.

Miscellaneous Items Such As Laptop Batteries Are Important to Correctly Buy and Replace When Needed

In this day of advanced technology, we often forget that laptop computers are still as important now as the day they first hit the market. Granted, now they are smaller, more efficient, and a lot more streamlined than before, but, businessmen and women use them all over the world multiple times a day. Keeping a…

In this day of advanced technology, we often forget that laptop computers are still as important now as the day they first hit the market. Granted, now they are smaller, more efficient, and a lot more streamlined than before, but, businessmen and women use them all over the world multiple times a day. Keeping a healthy laptop is important because you would not want it to crash during the making of an important presentation. If the worst happens, and your computer can not keep a decent charge in the original battery, it is important to shop around for the cheapest new battery, while maintaining the same quality of the brand of computer.

Laptop computers are handy pieces of equipment when you need a computer to work from while traveling or just at a local cafè. The downside to having a laptop that either runs a long time while not plugged in, or a very old computer is the battery. An average laptop battery has a battery life of anywhere from two to four years. That of course always depends on the brand of the computer and the battery, what type it is, how you use it, and how you charge it. Sometimes, over charging your battery, or only relying on using the computer while plugged into the electricity will cause the battery to not live as long as if you run it without the cord attached. Regardless, unless you want to replace your entire laptop computer, you will need to buy a battery when it gets too old and can not stay charged.

The biggest question you need to consider when shopping for a new laptop battery is what brand of computer do you have, and what type of battery does the computer use. There are a few types of batteries that you find for laptops on the market today. The most common, and the most commonly wanted is the Lithium-ion battery. These are very lightweight and have a better performance than the others. It is also much more environmentally friendly than the others as well. This will be the type of battery you want to look for when you start looking at your options.

When you find the type of laptop battery that you need, start price checking and finding comparable prices to get the best deal. Laptop batteries and other miscellaneous computer supplies are often overlooked when shopping, but they are important for a healthy and long-lasting laptop for your business and personal needs.

Use Color Laser Toner Cartridges in Your Printer to Give You the Brightest Color Prints From Home

Laser printers were once thought of as the technology of the printing future when they first came out. And while that may still be true true, they now have competition on the market. Introduced in the 1960's, they are still considered a very useful printer to have either at home or in the office. The…

Laser printers were once thought of as the technology of the printing future when they first came out. And while that may still be true true, they now have competition on the market. Introduced in the 1960's, they are still considered a very useful printer to have either at home or in the office. The biggest thing that you need to know if you are choosing to buy a laser printer, or if you already have one, is that you must change out the toner when you need to. If you use a lot of color in your printing, then you should check out the color laser toner cartridges. This will give your images the best quality look in the end.

The extraordinary aspect about laser printers that make them different from other printers on the market is that the cartridges that they use for the printing process is not actually liquid ink or solid ink. It is a fine powder stored in a plastic container that you buy. This is what is actually what you call 'toner' when you talk about the 'toner cartridge'. Every single laser printer uses this type of ink to print. This is because the toner gets printed to the paper by an electrostatic charge from the cartridge and it is later pressed on to the paper by a heated roller inside the printer.

If you are in the business of printing lots of pictures or posters, you want to make sure that you have enough of the color laser toner cartridges on hand so you will have all you need to make beautiful pieces for your business. Plus, this ink does not dry up so you will have more time used and less wasted due to not using your printer. The great thing about the color toner in laser printers is the quality it gives you in the end. It is such a rich and brilliant color that you will only want to use a laser printer for all your business needs later on.

Using a laser printer may seem daunting, but when you see the images they create the color laser toner, you will only want to keep using one for the rest of your printing days. Just remember to buy the correct color laser toner cartridges for your laser printer and you will have everything you need to make beautiful pictures for your business or home.

Keep Your Printer and Computer Running Smoothly With All the Right Supplies and Necessities

Owning a computer is something that is very necessary these days for any type of business to take place. There are few businesses that are running smoothly without any type of computer system set up. That is because almost everyone runs on the Internet now, and many people rely on email to communicate with other…

Owning a computer is something that is very necessary these days for any type of business to take place. There are few businesses that are running smoothly without any type of computer system set up. That is because almost everyone runs on the Internet now, and many people rely on email to communicate with other businesses or even people within their business. For many places it is necessary to have a printer or a copier in the office so they can access to all their important documents when you need them. In this instance, having all the proper supplies is important to have your business continue to run smoothly. Not to mention, if you were to run out of a certain supply of something, it could be extremely detrimental to the work flow in the office. So, to avoid this from happening, it is important that you get all the supplies you need to stay running.

One of the most important supplies that you could run out of is ink for your printer. If you have a laser printer that uses a powdered toner, a solid ink printer that uses those solid ink sticks, or the more common inkjet printer which uses the liquid ink cartridges, it would be a disaster to run out of ink in the middle of a printing process. In order to stop this happening, a good business head would stock up on a lot of ink (which your printer uses) so you will not stop the working during the day. Most of the ink is found online at cheaper prices than in store, and they will ship directly to you.

Something else you do not want to run out of or have a problem with is toner for your copier. Next to the printer, your copier is the next most important piece of equipment for getting documents when you need them. If your copier is also a fax machine, it is important to keep that fax roll and that copier toner up to date so your printed pages from that machine come out looking good. If your toner is low, the print on the paper will not read as well as it should. This is something that is also very easy to find and buy online at comparable prices.

Having all the right printing supplies will help you keep your business running without taking too much time out of your day to shop for everything that you need. Shopping online is often the fast solution to getting everything you need and it will all be delivered right to your doorstep. How much easier could your shopping be? Finding things at comparable value is important as well as you do not want to spend a lot of printing supplies. Keeping this in mind, you can go about your year of business with all your new printing supplies.

Replacing Your Laser Toner Is Important to Keep Your Printed Pages Looking Good

Laser printers are wonderful printers that give a high quality and professional look to anything that you need or want to print. They are not as common as say, the inkjet printer, in homes, because because they are slightly more expensive and not as easy to get ink replaced than their cousins. Neverheless, people who…

Laser printers are wonderful printers that give a high quality and professional look to anything that you need or want to print. They are not as common as say, the inkjet printer, in homes, because because they are slightly more expensive and not as easy to get ink replaced than their cousins. Neverheless, people who are a big fan of these printers need to know what they must to change out the toner when you need to and keep the maintenance on them up to date. By doing this, you can make sure that your printer will last a long time, and it will keep giving you the best printed pages you could ask for.

The unique thing about laser printers and their cartridges is that the ink used to print on to the paper is not actually liquid ink or solid ink. It is a fine dust like powder stored within the plastic cartridge. This is what is actually referred to as the 'toner' in the phrase 'toner cartridge'. All laser printers use this type of ink, or anything else that uses a laser to make a printed image on paper or other materials. This is because the toner gets transferred to the paper by an electrostatic charge from the cartridge and it is later pressed on to the paper by a heated roller inside the printer. This ensures that the powder gets pressed hard enough on to the paper and it looks like something from a regular printer in the end.

The downfall to using a laser printer is the price of the cartridges that you must buy and use in the printer. It is so bad that sometimes, new laser printers are actually cheaper than the new cartridges themselves. The good thing about using the laser toner though is that they are a for a while. You can print up to 2000 pages on one toner cartridge. Plus, you do not run the risk of the ink drying up like in inkjet printers, so you can save money in that sense as well. With the powdered toner, you will have more time used and less wasted due to not using your printer.

Do not let the prices of laser toner cartridges be daunting to you though. There are plenty of places online that you can find everything that you need at comparable prices and they can even be delivered right to your door. So, in that sense, buying these online can save you from having to buy a whole new printer just because it is cheaper than the laser toner cartridge itself. Avoid this, and you will keep printing beautiful quality pieces for a long time to come.